Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC) best remembered for his code of laws, made Babylon the capital of a vast empire.
Babylon once again achieved pre-eminence when Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 BC) extended his Chaldean Empire over most of Western Asia.
Babylon fell to Cyrus the Great of Persia in 539 BC during the time of Daniel. Occupation continued until the city was taken by Alexander the Great in 331 BC.
Babylon subsequently declined and was eventually abandoned after the Muslim conquest of AD 641.
The ancient ruins of Babylon are in the province of Babil in Iraq.